Avel-COVID19-Comp Sc-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
COVID – 19 SIT@HOME
INTEL DEV. CLASS
ND COMPUTER SCIENCE
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
Committee of Intellectuals [CoI]
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE CENTER [INTEL CENTER]
QUESTION: At the systems design stage of the system development Life Cycle SDLC, the systems analyst should specify how the system will accomplish what a system should do to meet the information needs of users. Hence, explain the following design activities:
(i) User Interface Design
(ii) Data Design
(i) User Interface Design
Focuses on supporting the interactions between end-users and their computer-based applications. The goal is to design attractive and efficient forms of user input and output, such as easy-to-use Internet/intranet web pages; or to design methods of converting human readable documents to machine-readable input, such as optical scanning of business forms. This activity produces detailed design specifications for information products such as display screens, interactive user/computer dialogues, etc.
(ii) Data Design
Focuses on the design of the structure of databases and files to be used by the proposed information system. The product of data design is the detailed description of:
1. The attributes or characteristics of the entities (objects, people, places, events) about which the proposed information system needs to maintain information
2. The relationships these entities have to each other
3. The specific data elements (databases, files, records, etc.) that need to be maintained for each entity tracked by the information system
4. The integrity rules that govern how each data element is specified and used in the information system.
QUESTION: Briefly describe the techniques below as used for fact gathering:
(i) interviewing (ii) Questionnaires (iii) Observation
(i) Interviewing: This involves personal contact between the System Analyst and the users of the system that is to be analyzed and it enables the Analyst to gather facts about what goes into the system
(ii) Questionnaires: A questionnaire is a document, which consists of a list of questions and is given to a group of persons (called respondents) who are expected to fill in the answers to the questions so as to obtain facts about their views.
(iii) Observation: This is process whereby the analyst formally watches an activity being performed by a department staff in order to identify problems, skill characteristics, time needed, environmental constraints and so on
QUESTION: Briefly explain types of changeover procedures you know stating one (1) advantage each of them
The types of changeover procedures you know are:
- Direct Changeover: This is the process of introducing a completely new system without reference to any previous similar system which may exist.
Advantages: It is relatively more efficient
- Parallel Conversion: This involves the processing of current data simultaneously by both the old and the new systems in order to crosscheck the results.
Advantages: It enables management to fully test the new system whilst still keeping the old system in operation.
- Pilot Changeover: This involves the running of the complete new system at a selected location of the company (e.g. New payroll system in one department) while the old system continues to operate.
Advantages: It reduces the risk of failure
- Phased Changeover: This involves implementing the new system in modules or stages.
Advantages: It is less expensive
QUESTION: Briefly explain the followings: (i) System Specification (ii) Functional Requirement Analysis (iii) Data Analysis
(i) System Specification: Specify the details of a proposed information system. System specification formalize the design of an application’s user interface methods and products, database structures and processing and control procedures.
(ii) Functional Requirement Analysis: This is involves the determination of specific information needs of each function within the organization.
(iii) Data Analysis: This is the identification of the data elements that are needed to support the data processing system of the organization, the placing of the elements into logical groups (called records) and the definition of the relationships between the resulting groups (i.e. files).
QUESTION: Briefly explain the three (3) levels of Information you know
Three levels of information are:
- Strategic Information: Strategic Information is used by senior management for
long-term planning. It is therefore predictive and long-range in nature e.g.
Reports on the profitability of a major sectors or products.
- Tactical Information: These are information used by departmental managers
(i.e. middle management) for monitoring the resources used in achieving the
strategic objectives. This level of information is usually presented as reports
relating to recent past or near future and the time span is usually monthly
or quarterly e.g. Analysis of sales per product.
- Operational Information: These are Information used by the managers to check
that specific duties are properly organized and efficiently executed. It relates
to day-to-day running of the organization and usually detailed and accurate
e.g. sales and purchases ledger balances.
QUESTION: Briefly explain the following types of Systems giving adequate examples (i) Cybernetic System (ii) Stochastic System (iii) Deterministic System
- Cybernetic System: These are system, which adapt and react to input or external stimulus in self-organizing manner. The method of adaptation is uncertain and the same input do not always produce the same response e.g. living thing
(ii) Stochastic System: These are system where some conditions of the system can
be predicted from the previous state but only in terms of probable behaviour and there is always a certain degree of error attached to the prediction of what the system will do e.g. budget system
(iii) Deterministic System: These are predictable systems where the output can be determined from the input. e.g. A computer program
QUESTION: Define System Development life cycle and list two components of system development
The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) method could be thought of as the set of activities that analysts, designers, and users carry out to develop and implement an information system. Two components of system development system analysis and system design
QUESTION: Describe the term system Analyst and outline any six (6) of its functions
A systems analyst is a person who uses analysis and design techniques to solve business problems using information technology. Systems analysts may serve as change agents who identify the organizational improvements needed, design systems to implement those changes, and train and motivate others to use the systems.
Business knowledge: As the analyst might have to develop any kind of a business system, he should be familiar with the general functioning of all kind of businesses.
Interpersonal skills: Such skills are required at various stages of development process for interacting with the users and extracting the requirements out of them
Problem solving skills: A system analyst should have enough problem solving skills for defining the alternate solutions to the system and also for the problems occurring at the various stages of the development process.
QUESTION: Define system element and outline six features of a system approach
System elements are the elements that enable system to perform its efficient functions
Features of a system approach:
System must have input
System must have output
There is coordinating body
System is made of subsystem
QUESTION: Describe the concept of system design.
System design is the process of defining the architecture, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. Systems design could be seen as the application of systems theory to product development.
QUESTION: Define management Information System? And state its characteristics
Management Information System is the application of information technology in performing management functions are involved in the business activities of an organization.
MIS is a collection of resources (Hardware, Software, Procedures and Human ware) that are involved in data collection and processing to produce information that is used by managers to fulfill the basic management, function (planning, organizing, directions, controlling, staffing etc).
Characteristics of MIS
- It has little analytical capability
- It aids decision making using past present data
- It supports structured and semi structured decisions at operational and management levels
- It has internal rather than external orientation.
QUESTION: Distinguish between the following pairs of system terminologies:
(i) Data and Information (ii) Negative Feedback and Positive Feedback
(i) Data are facts obtained by reading, counting, measuring etc., which are then recoded. They are unassembled and each is meaningless on its own. They are records of the day-to-day activities of an organization. They constitute the input raw material from which information is produced. WHILE Information is the data that has been processed, interpreted by, understood by, and useful to the recipient of his report. Information is knowledge and understanding that is usable by the recipient. It must tell the recipient something not already known.
(ii) Negative feedback is one which attempts to reduce fluctuations around a standard. The corrective action would be in opposite direction of the error. The action of negative feedback tends to smooth out fluctuations. WHILE Positive feedback causes the system to amplify an adjustment. It acts in the same direction as the measured deviation, thereby reinforcing the way the system is moving, if this is thought beneficial.
QUESTION: Describe the various levels of Management (Note diagram required)
The levels of management are as follows:
- TOP-LEVEL MANAGERS:
These are often called strategic managers, focus on long-term issues and emphasize the survival, growth and overall effectiveness of the organization as a whole but also with the interaction between the organization and its external environment. They make strategic decisions like mergers and acquisitions, new product planning, capital investment etc.
- MIDDLE-LEVEL MANAGERS:
They are called tactical managers and are responsible for translating the general goals and plans developed by strategic managers into more specific objectives and activities. The role of middle managers is to be an administrative controller, who bridges the gap between higher and lower level. They make tactical decisions which include pricing, capacity building, budget preparation, purchasing contrasts etc.
- FRONTLINE MANAGERS:
They are called operational managers or low level manager who supervise the operations of the organization. These manager often have titles such as supervisor or sales managers. They are directly involved with implementing the specific plans developed with middle managers. The operational decisions include: production scheduling, sales ordering & credit approval.
(Top –Level Manager)
Pyramid it levels of Decision
QUESTION: Different between KBS & TPS
A knowledge-based system (KBS) is a system that uses Artificial Intelligence techniques in problem-solving processes to support human decision – making, learning and action.
TPS keep track of routine operations and record this event in a database while MIS involves in the collection, storage, retrieval of communication and use of data for the purpose of efficient management operation and for business planning
QUESTION: Define Planning
Planning is the managerial process of deciding in advanced what is to be done, and how it is
be done. The primary purpose is to provide the guidelines necessary for decision making and resulting action throughout the organization
QUESTION: Describe prototyping in information system development. Identify the advantages and disadvantages.
Prototyping: consist of building an experimental system rapidly and inexpensively or end-user in evaluate.
- Encourages end – user involvement in system development
- Rapid creation of prototype may result in system that have not been completely tested or documented.
QUESTION: Explain four (4) types of System Testing you know
The four (4) types of testing are:-
- Unit (Program) Testing: This involves the testing of individual programs by their authors in order to ensure that it conforms to the analyst’s specification.
- Integration / Procedural / Link Testing: This is the testing of all the programs and routines that make up the system in order to ensure that the whole systems fits together as specified in the system specification
- Hardware Testing: This is carried out to ensure that various parts of the system’s configuration work together to produce the required outputs.
- Acceptance Testing: This involves the testing of the whole system’s hardware and software by the group of all user departments, system department, and management to ensure that the new system operates as specified in the requirement specification and the system’s specification.
QUESTION: Explain the major cost associated with the development of a new system
The major lost associated with the new system are development cost and running cost.
The development cost includes:
- Analysis Costs: These are cost associated with the feasibility study, fact finding and determination of user requirements.
- Design Costs: Costs associated with defining the system input, outputs, files and procedures
- Implementation Cost: Costs associated with programming, and testing the new system, setting up the required files, training staff, changing over to the new system and cost of new equipment to be introduced (if any)
The running cost of the new system will depend on computer time and resources it takes up, as well as the personnel who will be involved with the system, both from the users’ point of view and computer operations. e.g. salaries of system staff
QUESTION: Explain the term Internet? Mention five (5) Applications of Internet
Internet refers to worldwide collection of networked computers which linked millions of computer worldwide
Five (5) Applications of Internet are:
(i) Electronic mail (ii) File transfer (iii) Newsgroup (iv) Worldwide Web (www)
(v) Teleconferencing (vi) Electronic Commerce, etc
QUESTION: Explain the following Computer Based Information Systems:
(i) Transaction Processing Systems (ii) Management Information Systems
(iii) Decision Support Systems (iv) Executive Support Systems
(i) Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): This helps an organization to keep track of routine operations and record this event in a database.
- Management Information System (MIS): MIS is the combination of human and computer based resources which result in the collection, storage, retrieval, communication and use of data for the purpose of efficient management operations and for business planning.
(iii) Decision Support System (DSS): DSS helps decision maker analyze unanticipated situation. It enables managers to get answers to unexpected and generally non-recurring kind of problem.
(iv) Executive Support System (ESS): ESS is a specially designed, simplified system for top executive. ESS is designed to be easy to use in such a way that the top executive with little spare time can obtain essential information.
QUESTION: Explain the basic elements of control cycle
- A standard specifying the expected performance. This can be in form of a budget, a procedure, a stock level, an output rate or some other target.
- A measurement of actual performance: This should be made in an accurate, speedy, unbiased manner and using relevant units as measures.
- Comparison of (i) a (ii) Frequently, the comparison is accompanied by an analysis which is the accounting process of variance analyses.
- Feedback of deviations or variations to a control unit. In an organizational context, the control unit would be a manager.
- Actions by the control unit to alter performance in accordance with the plan
- Feedback to a higher level control unit regarding large variations between performance and plan, and upon the results of the lower level control units actions.
QUESTION: Explain the following: i) MIS at the operational level ii) MIS at the tactical level iii) MIS at the strategic level
(i) MIS at the operational level
MIS at the operational level, whether manual or computerized are file processing systems. Their input comprises the data from operational transactions and their outputs are reports, action, documents and enquiry handling. MIS at this level perform most of the tests of computability whether batch or real time processing so that most are computer based. At the operational level, MIS have traditionally been batch processing systems. This form of processing will continue to be appropriate when data volumes are high, there are large files, data processing efficiency is important and periodic reporting is sufficient to meet operational demands.
(ii) MIS at the tactical level
Tactical level management implement strategies, objectives and monitor operators. They monitor the conventional control system. The type of tactical level MIS includes control systems which monitor and reports on organization activities, database system that stores data and information, enquiry system which allow planning and query of database and decisions support system which encourages modeling and simulation, statistical analysis and investment appraised model.
(iii) MIS at the strategic level
There is need for MIS to obtain information about the environment by a scanning and information gathering process in other to identify potential threats and opportunity.
The features of useful strategic information are
- Largely external
- Highly concerned with the future
- It is highly qualitative as well as quantitative
- They are always bounded free
Strategic information are multi-dimensional. They must be in all-embracing view of problems, so need to consider all facts which may be relevant.
QUESTION: Enumerate the four (4) ways of creating Report in Microsoft Access
The four (4) ways of creating Reports are:
- Report Wizard
- Report Design
- Blank Report
QUESTION: Explain the following steps of group Decision Making Process:
(i) Brain Storming (ii) Issue Categorization and Analysis (iii) Ranking and Voting
- BRAIN STORMING: This is the first step of the group decision making process where each member of the team can contribute to an on-going discussion on a problem with a view to taking the most appropriate decision or finding solution to it. The brainstorming process is an interactive one where each comment is displayed on a viewing screen or on the PC’s screen of each member.
- ISSUE CATEGORIZATION AND ANALYSIS: This is the second step of the process and its activities are centred on grouping, sorting and classifying statements of problem according to some common characteristics. The categorized statements can further be analysed in a way that they are comprehensible to all members.
- RANKING AND VOTING: This is the last step of all process; one that ranks all the available ideas or statements with a view to pocketing the best solution based on projected consequences.
QUESTION: Enumerate the six (6) objects in Microsoft Access that you know?
The objects in M.S Access are
QUESTION: Explain the following types of Information Processing System:
(i) Transaction Processing System (ii) Decision Support System (iii) Executive Support System
- TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM
This is a computerized system that enables operational level managers to carryout their day-to-day activities. These activities include records of daily transactions: sales, order, entry, bill processing, shopping details, hotel reservation and inventory of goods and services rendered.
- DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM
This is an information system that serve purely the strategic level management.
It is particularly very suited for unique or rapidly changing semi-structured decisions that cannot be specified in advance as against MIS
Unlike MIS, DSS has analytical capability to sieve through massive amount of data to generate information for decision makers.
The system is generally user-friendly, very interactive and very ideal for constructing what-if scenarios with a view to making the best decision per time.
- EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEM
This is an information system that serves the strategic managers purely. It has less analytical capabilities than DSS, but can solve a wide array of problem.
The ESS can be considered a more interactive MIS and has capabilities for DSS and artificial intelligence combined to assist managers to identify and address problems and opportunities. It presents managers with several views of the subject domain, placing them at vantage position o make the best of decisions.
QUESTION: Explain the categories of Decision Making based on any of the two criteria listed in question 2(b) above.
Decision based on the knowledge of the Decision Outcome
- CERTAINTY: There is a comprehensive of the Decision Outcome and it is just one. That is very certain.
- RISK: The Decision involves multiple outcomes for each of the alternatives to which probability of occurrence is attached.
- UNCERTAINTY: This involves numerous outcomes with unknown probabilities.
QUESTION: Enumerate the steps required to create a Query, using query wizard.
The steps required to create as query, using Query Wizard
- Click on create menu
- Click on query wizard from the dialogue box click on Simple Query Wizard
- Click on OK
- A Simple Query Wizard dialogue box appears select the record source and move from available field section to the selected field section the fields you want to Query
- Click on next (A Simple Query Wizard dialogue box appears)
- Click on next & type the name of your Query
- Click on finish
QUESTION: Explain the followings
(i) Entity Relationship Model (ii) Network Model (iii) Relational Model
(iv) Hierarchical Model
Entity Relationship Model
- THE ENTITY: Relationship Model is based on a real-world situation that comprises of a collection of objects or entities and their relationships
- NETWORK MODEL: Data in the network model are represented by collections of records and relationships among data are represented by links, which can be viewed as pointers.
- RELATIONAL MODEL: The relational model uses a collection of tables to represent both data and the relationships among those data
- HIERARCHICAL MODEL: This is similar to the network model in the sense that data and relationship among the data are represented by records & links representatively. It differs from network model in the sense that the records are organized as collections trees rather than arbitrary graph.
QUESTION: Explain the following levels of information in an organization. Give an example of each.
(i) Strategic Information
(ii) Tactical Information
(iii) Operational information
Levels of Information
(i) Strategic information is used by senior management for long-term planning. It is predictive and long-range in nature. There is not usually the need for highly detailed information at this level. Examples include capital investment projects, sources and disposal of revenue, reports on profitability of products.
(ii) Tactical information is used by middle management for monitoring the resources used in achieving the strategic objectives. This level of information is usually presented as reports relating to the recent past or the near future. Examples are analysis of sales, cash flow projections, etc.
(iii) Operational information is used by line managers to check that specific duties are properly organized and effectively executed. It is usually very detailed and accurate. It tends to be specific to each function and covers very small time spans. Examples are employee attendance records, machine output records, etc.
QUESTION: Enumerate the objectives of the analyst during system design
A systems analyst may:
- Identify, understand and plan for organizational and human impacts of planned systems, and ensure that new technical requirements are properly integrated with existing processes and skill sets.
- Plan a system flow from the ground up.
- Interact with internal users and customers to learn and document requirements that are then used to produce business requirements documents.
- Write technical requirements from a critical phase.
- Interact with software architect to understand software limitations.
- Help programmers during system development
- Document requirements or contribute to user manuals.
QUESTION: How does information flow in an organization?
Information flows up and down among managers and sideways among departments. An information system is a collection of hardware, software, people, procedure and data. They all work together to provide information essential to the running of an organization. This is information that will successfully be produced for profit oriented enterprises to derive profit. In large and medium sized organization, computerized information systems support the flow of information within the organization. This information flows both vertically and horizontally.
One way to examine an organization’s structure is to view it from a functional perspective. That is to study different basic functional areas in an organization and the different types of people within these functional areas.
QUESTION: List any six (6) application areas of Relational Database Management System.
The Application Areas of Relational Database Management System are:
- Library Management System
- Manufacturing Industry
- Banking Application
- Airline & Reservation
- Hospitality Management Systems
- Order Processing
QUESTION: List five (5) functions of information
- Reduction of uncertainty
- Information as an aid of monitoring and control
- As a means of communication
- Memory supplement: By having historical information about performance, transactions, results of past actions and decisions available for reference, personal memories are supplemented.
- As an aid to simplification: By reducing uncertainty and enhancing understanding, problems and situations are simplified and become more manageable.
QUESTION: List five main types of resources required to be managed effectively by a manager
3. Machines (including facilities and energy)
4. Information (Including data)
QUESTION: List six characteristics of control includes
- Control is a continuous process
- Control is a management process
- Control is embedded in each level of organizational hierarchy
- Control is forward looking
- Control is closely linked with planning
- Control is a tool for achieving organizational activities
- Control is an end process
QUESTION: List and explain the four (4) different types of database management users
- Application Programmers: Are computer professionals who interact with the system through Data Manipulation Language (DML) calls, which are embedded in a program written using an application programs.
- Sophisticated Users: The users interact with the system without writing programs. Instead, they form their request in a database query language.
- Specialized User: These are sophisticated users who write specialized database applications that do not fit into the traditional data processing framework.
- Native Users: These are unsophisticated users who interact with the system by invoking permanent application programs previously written by a programmer.
QUESTION: Mention five (5) features of System Approach
Five (5) features of system approach are:
- All system is composed of interrelated parts
- Systems are hierarchical in that that parts of subsystem are made up of other smaller parts
- The parts of a system cannot be altered
- The subsystem should be working toward the goal of the system and not to pursue its own objectives.
- System contains both hard and soft properties
QUESTION: Mention five (5) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of prototyping
Five (5) Advantages of Prototyping are:
- Encourages active knowledge worker participation
- Helps resolve discrepancies among knowledge workers
- Gives knowledge workers a feel for the system
- Helps determine technical feasibility
- Help sell the idea of a proposed system
Three (3) Disadvantages of Prototyping are:-
- Leads people to believe the final system will follow shortly
- Gives no indication of performance under operational conditions
- Leads the project team to forgo proper testing and documentation
QUESTION: Mention any four Responsibilities of a DBA.
Responsibilities of the DBA
1. Monitoring the implementation of DB — time and cost constraints
2. Monitoring the implementation of DB – systems objectives
3. Maintaining the DB meets the information needs of the organization
4. Ensuring that the facilities for retrieving data are appropriate
5. Monitoring a dictionary describing the data items
6. Providing manuals for users
7. Overseeing the security of the DB
QUESTION: Outline the activities that can be performed on a database management system
- Add file(s) to the database
- Insert data into the existing files
- Delete data from the files
- Security and integrity rules could be enforced
- Data and information could be retrieved from the database
QUESTION: Outline the steps of creating Form using Form wizard.
The steps of creating form using form wizards are:
- Click on create menu
- Click on move forms
- Click on form wizard (a form wizard dialog box will appear) which you must choose the record source and choose from available fields to selected fields, those fields you want to use your forms.
- Click on next
- Click on next (A form wizard dialog box will appear, choose the style that you want as metro etc.)
- Click on Next (A form wizard dialog box will appear, give your form a name)
- Click on finish.
QUESTION: Outline the stages involved in the MIS-Development Life Cycle.
MIS – System Development Life Cycle stages are:
- Planning and Requirement Analysis
- Define Requirement
- Designing System Architecture
- Building or Development the System
- Testing the System
- Deployment of the System
- System Education & Maintenance
QUESTION: Outline four (4) criteria required to categorise Decision Making
Classification based on the extent to which the decision making process can be preplanned (i) Structured (ii) Semi-structured (iii) Unstructured Decision
- STRUCTURED: These are decisions that are routine and repetitive in nature. They involve specific and deterministic procedures, hence they are easily amendable to automation.
- SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISION: These decisions have some elements of structured and unstructured characteristics. That is some phases of the decision making process involve unstructured decision while some other ones involves structured decision.
- UNSTRUCTURED DECISION: These decisions are also known as non-programmed because the decision making process cannot be specified. Therefore, they involve novel, non routine decisions. With unknown rules and hence they are be clouded with many uncertainties
QUESTION: Outline six characteristics areas where computer system is mostly used
The six (6) characteristics areas where computer system is mostly used are:
1. Where there is interacting variables
2. Rate and speed at which data is to be processed
3. Caution for accurate values
4. Quite enormous data to be processed
5. Where there is repetitive operation 6. High level of data security
QUESTION: Outline any six functions of MIS
The main functions of MIS are as follows?
1. provide middle managers with reports on the organization’s current performance.
2. summarize and report the company’s basic operations using data supplied by TPSs.
3. serve managers primarily interested in daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly results.
4. provide answers to routine questions that have been specified in advance.
6. It predicts the future situation by applying modern mathematics, statistics or simulation.
QUESTION: Outline the functions of Management Information System to an organization
Functions of MIS
- Provides the information required for management decision making
- Obtain data as input from the different departments of the organization and external environment.
- Process data as appropriate to produce summarized reports of the data as its output
- Provides & maintains facilities & produces for capturing, storing retrieving & presenting data plans and implements strategies to collect & organize data on a continuous basis.
QUESTION: Outline six reasons why information systems are so important for business today
1. Operational excellence
2. New products, services, and business models
3. Customer and supplier intimacy
4. Improved decision making
5. Competitive advantage
QUESTION: State any two functions of the Data Dictionary.
Functions of a Data Dictionary
1. Provides a description of the data which is used in a program.
2. Ensures that everyone in the organization defines and uses data consistently.
3. Used to organized and maintain the data in the database.
QUESTION: State the components of Group Decision Support System
The component of decision support system are:
- System Software
- The Data
- The Decision Model
QUESTION: State and explain briefly five (5) benefits of database management system
- Data and program independence: Data or program can be amended independently using a database system.
- Non-duplication of data: A database eliminates data duplication and offers consistent and up to data.
- Concurrent usage: The database system allows more than one program to access the database simultaneously, so that the resources could be fully utilized.
- Security and integrity: Security features are built into the database software
- Standards are enforced: With centralized control of data, the database administrator can ensure that standards are maintained in stores data formats.
QUESTION: State four (4) features of information
Four (4) characteristics of a good information are
- It must be accurate
- It must clear so that it can be understood
- It must be timely that is, ready when need
- It must be relevant to the purpose it wants to achieve
- It must be complete enough for the problem in question
QUESTION: State four (4) problems of Database Management Systems
Four (4) problems of a DBMS are:-
- Data may only require simple structure
- The whole organization needs to support the developments of a database
- Database software is expensive
- There is likelihood of problems in data security and data privacy.
- Since data is held once but used in widespread, if there is system failure
there could be problems of data recovery
QUESTION: The last stage of the SDLC is Evaluation and Maintenance
(i) State two reasons for evaluating a newly implemented information system.
(ii) State two reasons why a new system should be maintained periodically.
Evaluation and Maintenance
(i) The new operational system is evaluated for the following reasons:
1. To compare the achievements of the system to the objectives originally set.
2. To examine the efficiency of the system in order to see where improvements can be made.
3. The evaluation provides valuable feedback to the systems analyst, so that he may learn from the good and the bad points of the system.
(ii) After the initial post-implementation evaluation the system should be reviewed and maintained periodically for the following reasons:
1. To confirm that the planned objectives are being met and to take action if they are not.
2. To deal with unforeseen problems arising in operation, e.g. programs may need to be modified to deal with unforeseen circumstances.
3. To ensure that the system is able to cope with the changing requirements of business.
QUESTION: What do you understand by the term “SYSTEM?” and “COMPUTER SYSTEM”
A system is a collection of inter-related components that work together in a well-coordinated fashion to achieve a common goal/objective .These component are termed subsystems.
QUESTION: What is feasibility study and what is the purpose of feasibility study.
Feasibility study is the measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems, and takes advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfies the requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system development.
QUESTION: What is an information system?. What activities does it perform?
Information system is a set of interrelated components that work together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization.
In addition to supporting decision making, coordination, and control, information systems may also help managers and workers analyze problems, visualize complex subjects, and create new products.
QUESTION: What are the characteristics of TPS and what role do they play in business organization
TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS- collect, store, modify and retrieve the transactions of an organisation. A transaction is an event that generates or modifies data that is eventually stored on an information system. The main information processes are collecting and storing. The four important characteristics of a TPS are:
RAPID RESPONSE- Fast performance with a rapid response is critical. Input must become output in seconds so customers’ don’t wait.
RELIABILITY- Organizations rely heavily on their TPS with failure possibly stopping business. Back-up and recovery procedures must be quick and accurate.
INFLEXIBILITY- A TPS wants every transaction processed in the same way regardless of user or time. If it were flexible there would be too many opportunities for non-standard operations.
CONTROLLED PROCESSING- The processing must support an organisation’s operations
QUESTION: What is the primary role of information managers in CBIS?
The primary role of information manager is to identify what decisions are to be made and to go about providing the information through an information system. Data is processed into information and together with ideas, instincts, rules and procedures, the manager used for appropriate decision
QUESTION: Write short notes on the following: system design report, data flow diagram, system flowchart.
The System Design Document describes the system requirements, operating environment, system and subsystem architecture, files and database design, input formats, output layouts, human-machine interfaces, detailed design, processing logic, and external interfaces.
A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the “flow” of data through an information system, modelling its process aspects. ADFD is often used as a preliminary step to create an overview of the system without going into great detail, which can later be elaborated.
System flowcharts are a way of displaying how data flows in a system and how decisions are made to control events
QUESTION: Who is a database administrator and List any four functions
(iii) DBA is a resource that supervises both the database and the use of the DBMS
Five main functions of a database administrator are:
·To create the scheme definition
·To define the storage structure and access methods
·To modify the scheme and/or physical organization when necessary
·To grant authorization for data access
·To specify integrity constraints
QUESTION: Write short notes on the following types of management reports.
(i) Exception report
(ii) Ad-hoc reports
(iii) Error reports
(i) Exception Reports — designed to identify some unusual occurrence that requires some corrective action. The principle of exception reporting is based upon the idea that if no decision or action is necessary, the situation goes unreported.
(ii) Ad-hoc Reports — prepared and presented in response of requests for information that is not pre-specified within a system. They are often needed quickly and then not again for some time, if ever.
(iii) Error Reports — prepared and presented to give information about any incidence within the system which will not allow data to be processed as prescribed or which when data is processed will not allow the desired result to be produced.
QUESTION: What is a system?
A system is an assembly of parts where:
1. The parts are connected in an organized way,
2. The parts are affected by being in the system…
3. The assembly does something.
4. One or more persons have identified the assembly as being of special interest.
QUESTION: Write short notes on the following systems:
(i) Self-organizing Systems
(ii) Deterministic Systems
(i) A self-organizing system is one that adapts and reacts to inputs. It adapts to its environment by adjusting its behaviors on self-organizing basis. The system alerts its input as a result of measuring its performance by monitoring its own behavior. The method of adaptation is uncertain and the same inputs do not always produce the same responses.
(ii) A deterministic system is one that enables the output to be generated from specific inputs to be predicted with certainty, provided the system is operating correctly and under control.
QUESTION: Write short notes on the following activities that are carried out at the Analysis Stage of the SDLC.
(i) Organizational Analysis
(ii) Analysis of the Present System
(iii) Functional Requirement Analysis
(i) Organizational analysis – Entails that the members of a development team have to know something about the organization, its management structure, its people, its business activities, the environmental systems it must deal with, and its current information system.
(ii) Analysis of the present system – involves the understanding of how this system uses hardware, software, network, and people resources to convert data resources into information product. It also involves the documentation of how the information system activities of input, processing, output, storage, and control are accomplished.
(iii) Functional requirement analysis — involves the determination of specific information needs of each function within the organization. The procedure is to determine the type of information a particular function requires; to determine the information processing capabilities required for each system activity to meet these information needs.
QUESTION: What do you understand by “PROTOTYPING”?
Prototyping is an iterative process in which you build a model from basic requirements, have other knowledge workers review the prototype, and suggest changes, and further refine and enhance the prototype to include suggestions.
Prototyping is a dynamic process that allows knowledge workers to see, work with, and evaluate a model and suggest changes to that model to increase the likelihood of success of the proposed system.
QUESTION: What is a Database?
A database is a single organized collection of structured data, store with a minimum of duplication of data items so as to provide a consistent and controlled pool of data that is common to all users of the system but in independent of the user’s programs.
QUESTION: What are your reasons, why Management Information System Project fail
MIS projects fails because of the following reasons
- In most organization, the task of planning , designing and implementing, MIS projects are usually left to the computer specialist, who may not be skilled in the area of management.
- Under estimation of time and cost required
- Lack of adequate tools
- Inadequate training of personnel on the nature & purpose of the system
QUESTION: Write short note on the followings:
(i) Defining Requirements (ii) Testing the System (iii) Developing the System(iv) Designing System Architecture
- DEFINING REQUIREMENT:
The requirement analysis stage generally completes by creation of a Feasibility Report. This contains a preamble, a goal statement, a brief description of the present system, proposed alternatives in details. The feasibility report and the proposed alternatives help in preparing the lost and benefit study.
- TESTING THE SYSTEM:
System testing requires a test plan that consists of several key activities and steps for programs, string, system and user acceptance testing.
Testing process focuses on both:
- The internal logic of the system/software ensuring that all statements have been tested.
- The external functions, by conducting test to find errors and ensuring that the defined input will actually produced the required results.
- DEVELOPING THE SYSTEM:
This refers to the technical specifications that will be applied in implementing the candidate system. It also includes the construction of programmers and program testing.
It has the following stage
- Acquiring hardware and software if necessary
- Database design
- Developing System Processes
- Coding and testing each module
- DESIGNING SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:
System design specifies how the system will accomplish this objective. System design consists of both logical design and physical design activity, which produces system specification satisfying system requirement developed in the system analyst stage.
QUESTION: Write short note on the following categories of Report:
(i) Scheduled Report (ii) Demand Report (iii) Exceptional Report
(iv) Summary Report
- SCHEDULED REPORT: This is also known as periodic reports, are those that are issued periodically i.e., hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or annually. Examples of such reports are daily production report and monthly performance report. These types of reports can be used for planning or control process.
- EXCEPTIONAL REPORT: These are report issued when something unusual takes place that require the attention of management. For instance, an expenses overrun would likely trigger the generation of an exception report or an inventory report that lists only those items that number fewer than 10 in stock Exception reports are used primarily for control purpose.
- DEMAND REPORT: These are report generated when someone with authority request information in response to an unscheduled demand. An executive asking for financial report or director of finance order a credit background report of an unknown customer who want to place a large order.
- SUMMARY REPORT: Summary reports show total and trends. An example would be a report showing total sales by office, by products, by sales person, of overall ‘total sales’.
QUESTION: What is knowledge management?
Knowledge management is the combination of activities involved in gathering, organizing, sharing, analyzing and disseminating knowledge to improve an organization performance.
The process of systematically and actively managing and leveraging the strives of knowledge in an organization.
The set of business process developed in an organization to create, store, transfer and apply knowledge.
QUESTION: With the aid of a diagram, show the functions of Management in an organization.
|Management Information System|
showing functions of management.
QUESTION: What are the purposes for implementing a GDSS
(i) Improve preplanning to make meeting more effective and efficient
(ii) Create open, collaborative meeting atmosphere
- Increase participation
- Enables attendees to contribute criticism free – idea
- Idea organization & evaluation
- Sets priorities and making decision
- Access to external information
- Preservation of organizational memory
- Enables ideas being evaluated on its merits rather than on the basis of the source of the idea
QUESTION: What are the technologies involves in group coordination and collaboration?
QUESTION: What are the major goals of information system security?
- To reduce the risk of systems and organizations ceasing operation
- To maintain information confidentiality
- To ensure the integrity and reliability of data resources
- To ensure the availability of data resources
QUESTION: What are controls in information system management and security?
Controls consist of all methods, policies and organizational procedure that ensures the safety of the organization assets, the accuracy and reliability of its accounting records and operational adherence to management standards.
QUESTION: Why do worms spread faster than computer virus.
Worms are independent computer program that copy themselves from one computer to others over a network. They rely less on human action to spread.
QUESTION: With weaknesses in each of the following general controls, identify the impact on information system installation.
(i) Implementation controls (ii) Software control (program security)
(iii) Administrative control
- System will have errors or fail to function as regarded
- Unauthorized changes can be made in processing. The organization may not be sure of which programs or system have been changed.
- Administrative. All of the other control may not be properly executed or enforce.
QUESTION: What do you understand by the word ‘information system’?
An information system is a system that provides information through a set of rules and procedures. Information system is the heart of an organization i.e. a framework of standards and procedure for processing data into useable information.
QUESTION: Write short notes on the following: i) Deterministic system ii) Probabilistic system iii) Self organizing system
- Deterministic System: These are predictive systems where the output can be determined from the input. Examples include: a computer program, a machine producing a component.
- Probabilistic Systems: These are systems where some conditions of the system can be predicted from the previous state but only in terms of probable behaviour. There is always a certain degree of error attached to the prediction of what the system will do. Example, a budget, an inventory control system.
- Self-Organizing: Are system that adapt and react to input or external stimuli in self-organizing manner. The method of adaptation is uncertain and the same input do not always produce the same response. The behaviour of self-organizing system is subject to rigorous scientific investigation. Example, living thing.
QUESTION: Write short notes on the following MIS reports: i) Demand report ii) Exceptional report iii) Periodic report iv) Error report
- Demand Reports: Is produced on request. An example is a report on the numbers of jobs held by women and minorities. Such a report is not needed periodically, but it may be required when requested by the organization concerned. Demand reports produce information in response to an unscheduled demand, they are produced on terminals or microcomputer screen rather than on paper.
- Exceptional Reports: This report call attention to unusual report. An example is a sales report that shows certain items are selling significantly above or below marketing department forecast. This report is used to alert the district manager to give the product more attention.
- Periodic Reports: These are produced at regular intervals monthly or quarterly for instance, month sales of production report. The sales report from district sales manager are combined into monthly report for the regional sales manager for comparison purpose.
- Error Reports: Are those prepared and presented to give information about any incidence within the system which will not allow data to be processed as prescribed or which, when data is processed will not allow the desired result to be produced. Error report can be created fro an invalid items in the input phase, items that can not be processed and also some hardware failures.
QUESTION: What is the drawbacks in MIS
- Lack of management involvement with the design of the MIS
- Little and not enough emphasis on the computer system
- Absolute lack of top management support for MIS
- Lack of computer knowledge by the management
- Relatively poor appreciation by information specialist
- Concentration on low – level data processing applications mostly in the areas of word processing and accounting
QUESTION: What is a System? A system can be open or closed. Discuss
A system is a set of interrelated and interdependence components that are working
together in a common fashion to achieve a common goal.
A system is an assemblage of parts or component connected together in an
organized way in order to achieve a particular goal and to satisfy a particular interest.
(Note: Any of the definition is correct)
A system can be closed or open. A closed system is a system that does not interact
with its neighbourhood, (i.e. environment). The system is therefore self-sufficient
so that the external factor does not influence its behavior nor the system
behaviours influence its environment e.g. mechanical systems
An open system is a system that interact with its environment. An open system
has to adopt to its changing environment whenever necessary to ensure its
continued existence e.g. information system.
QUESTION: Who is Database Administrator? Mention five (5) functions of Database Administrator
The Database Administrator (DBA) is a Manager appointed to manage
(i.e. look after) the structural, physical storage and security of data in the
interest of all those making use of the database.
Five (5) functions of a DBA are:-
- Database Maintenance
- Maintaining a delivery used in describing the data item
- Maintaining libraries on how well to the database
- Overseeing the security and integrity of database
- Ensuring that individual privacy is maintained
QUESTION: What is Management Report?
A Management report is the combination of information, arising from the company’s activities and information obtained from relevant environment, presented to management for purpose of being used in planning, control and decision making.
QUESTION: What is Management Control? Mention the basic elements of Control Cycle
Management control can be defined as a systematic effort by business management to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans, or objectives, in order to determine whether performance is in line with these standards and to take any remedial action required to see that human and corporate resources are being used in the effective and efficient way to possible in achieving corporate objectives.
The basic elements of the control cycle are:
- A standard specifying the expected performance e.g. Budget
- A measurement of actual performance
- Comparison of (i) and (ii) through the use of Variance Analysis in Accounting
- Feedback of deviations or variation to a control unit.
- Action by the control unit to alter performance in accordance with the plan.
- Feedback to a higher level control unit regarding large variations between
performance and plan.